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Information about the COVID-19 disease



Guideline for COVID-19

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses belong to a big group of enveloped RNA viruses. They were discovered in the 1960s. Coronaviruses primarily evoke respiratory diseases and diseases of the digestive tract in humans, birds and mammals.

Transmission

People can get infected by the COVID-19 disease by inhaling infectious droplets containing the virus from infected persons. The droplets are most often created whilst coughing, sneezing, talking, singing or breathing. The transmission is also possible by contact with contaminated surfaces followed by touching your nose, mouth or eyes.

In case you observe any symptoms of respiratory disease, it is therefore recommended to wear a respirator, follow increased hygienic measures and follow the so-called respiratory etiquette, e.g. cover your mouth with a tissue or your bent elbow while coughing.

Incubation period

The exact period when patients are infectious with COVID-19 (i.e. the contagious period during which they can transmit the virus) can differ based on the virus variant and vaccination.

Symptoms of COVID-19

The main symptoms are:

  • Higher temperature or fever,
  • Coughing,
  • Respiratory problems,
  • Sore throat, headache, back, muscle or bone pain,
  • Loss of smell/taste,
  • Tiredness,
  • Diarrhoea,
  • Sickness,
  • Cold,
  • Children may show symptoms of „covid toes“ (red and swelled);

Asymptomatic (without symptoms) cases of COVID-19 are also possible. In such cases, patients do not show any clinical symptoms and the presence of the virus is shown only by testing. However, these people can be infectious and infect others as well.

Every individual shows individual symptoms. Closely monitor your health throughout the illness. In case of getting worse, call your physician and follow their instructions.

If your health gets dramatically worse, call an ambulance on the 155 line.

Treatment of COVID-19

If your symptoms of the disease are only mild, start with a home treatment and try to mute the symptoms with commonly sold medicine. You can find the tips on how to handle the disease at home here: Home treatment of COVID-19 (Czech only)

Closely monitor your health throughout the illness. In case of getting worse, call your physician and follow their instructions.

If your health gets dramatically worse, call an ambulance on the 155 line.

Treatment of the COVID-19 disease at patients at-risk can include the administration of monoclonal antibodies or antivirals. The suitability of such medication decides your physician.

List of places administrating monoclonal antibodies and antivirals

Prevention options

  • Vaccination (primarily protects against severe course of the disease)
  • "3R rule":
    • Protection of respiratory valves by face masks or respirators,
    • Thorough and frequent hygiene, disinfection of hands after visiting places such as shops or public transport,
    • Keeping your distance,
  • Nutritious meals and healthy lifestyle

Post-covid syndrom

The recovery period differs for everyone. Many people feel better in a few days, others are fully recovered only after a few weeks. Usually, the fully convalescence appears within 12 weeeks. If some health problems show themselves for a period longer than 4 weeks, we can talk about the post-covid syndrom or so-called „long covid“.

Most frequent postcovid problems are:

  • Chronic tiredness,
  • Headaches,
  • Higher temperatures,
  • Stuffiness and coughing,
  • Sore throat,
  • Changes in smell or taste,
  • Depression or anxiety;

Other symptoms can be chest pain, palpitation, inability to focus, memory loss, insomnia, dizziness, stabbing pain in the limbs, joint pain, muscle pain, rash or tingling. Stomach ache, diarrhoea or changes in the frequency and flow of the menstruation cycle can also appear.

Post-covid problems may also show in people who have gone through a mild or asymptomatic course of the disease.

If you think you may suffert from the post-covid syndrom, do not hesitate to contact professional help.

More information at SZÚ (Czech only)

Coronavirus mutations

Variants of Concern (VOC)

are variants for which there exists an evidence about the increased transmission (transmissibility), more severe course of the disease (such as higher number of hospitalizations or deaths), significant reduction of neutralizing antibodies created during previous infection or by vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatment or vaccines, or failure of diagnostic detection.

Variants of Interest (VOI)

are variants for which there exists an evidence about genomic characteristics, epidemiological evidence or in vintro evidence, which could have a significant impact on the transmissibility, severity and/or immunity, which could have a real impact on the epidemiological situation in EU/EEA. This evidence is, however, only preliminary or is associated with a big uncertainty.

 

Current VOC variants

WHO label Lineage + additional mutation Country first detected Year and month first detected Impact on transmissibility Impact on immunity Impact on severity Transmission in EU/EEA
Omicron BA.2 South Africa November 2021 Increased (v) Increased (v) Reduced (v) Community
Omicron BA.4 South Africa January 2022 No evidence Increased (v)  No evidence Community
Omicron BA.5 South Africa February 2022 No evidence Increased (v)  Unclear Dominant

Current VOI variants

WHO label Lineage + additional mutation Country first detected Year and month first detected Impact on transmissibility Impact on immunity Impact on severity Transmission in EU/EEA
Omicron BA.2.75 India May 2022 No evidence Increased No evidence Detected (a)
Omicron BQ.1 n/a n/a No evidence Increased No evidence Detected (a)
Omicron XBB n/a n/a No evidence Increased No evidence Detected (a)

Tables from SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern as of 8 December 2022 (europa.eu).