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The treatment of the adverse reactions is described in the scope of the first aid and does not include a comprehensive description of the subsequent diagnostic and treatment procedure. Every vaccination centre must ensure immediate availability of the first aid in the case of life-threatening complications associated with the vaccination.
1. Vasovagal syncope
Vasovagal syncope is sudden, short-term loss of consciousness which may result in a fall. In case of fall, it is necessary to keep that individual in a horizontal position and do not try to lift him/her up. Please let them in that position couple of minutes, you can also lift the patient’s lower limbs. Firstly, a cardiac arrest should be ruled out according to baseline resuscitation algorithms (https://www.resuscitace.cz/doporucene-postupy) – available only in Czech.
2. Anaphylactic reaction
Possible manifestations of anaphylaxis:
- Skin – pruritus, erythema, exanthema, urticaria, edema
- Respiratory tract – runny nose, cough, heaves, asthma attack
- Digestive tract – nausea, stomachache, vomiting, diarrhea
- Circulatory system – pallor, cold sweat, thready pulse, tachycardia, hypotension, arrhythmia
- Nervous system – nervousness, fear, anxiety, headache, a disorder of consciousness
Mild forms of anaphylaxis can be demonstrated with only a few symptoms from the list.
General manifestations of anaphylaxis:
- Graduation and a combination of local symptoms.
- A shocking state develops (loss of consciousness, spasm) and can lead to respiratory or cardiovascular failure.
First Pre-Medical Aid
The goal of first pre-medical aid is to maintain vital functions. The patient should be positioned into Trendelenburg position – head declined below the feet, make sure the airway is clear and start the cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
First Aid (medical)
It is recommended to follow the anaphylaxis handling algorithm by Czech Resuscitation Council. The list of side effects according to the State Institute for Drug Control can be found below in the Related link section.